What makes a great beer city? The criteria surely changes from person to person. Quality craft breweries may be a priority for some, while prevalence of bars and cheap beer close to home are must-haves for others. The real estate site Redfin and the Beer Institute have combined forces to hone in on what elements need to come together to make a great beer city and what those cities might be.
To create their list, they’ve identified five criteria that form the essential ingredients of the best towns for brew. Those include the number of breweries per 100,000 21+ adults in the state, number of active brewery permits, state beer taxes (lower is better), median home price, and the city’s Walk Score, because you don’t want to drink and drive, obviously.
With the inclusion of home prices and Walk Score, it’s definitely not giving the best cities for craft beer, but provides a window to where living and loving beer might be easiest. Under those criteria, it’s not surprising that the classic beer cities that play home to some of the country’s biggest brewers rank well. Milwaukee (home of Miller), St. Louis (home of Budweiser), and Denver (home of Coors) all rank in the top 10.
But taking top billing is Pittsburgh, home of a whole lot of microbreweries, a low beer tax, reasonably priced homes, and a pretty solid Walk Score. Pittsburgh is followed by Buffalo, New York; Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Grand Rapids, Michigan; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Portland, Oregon; Denver, Colorado; Detroit, Michigan; Cleveland, Ohio; St. Louis, Missouri; Madison, Wisconsin; Long Island, New York (come on, that’s not a city); Seattle, Washington; Cincinnati, Ohio; and San Francisco, California. Don’t worry, we still love you and know your not-so-secret beer prowess Raleigh and San Diego.
As always with any list that is beer related, the upper midwest held its own.
The most interesting part of the survey may actually be the raw numbers that went into creating the list. Portland tops the charts with nine breweries per 100,000 21+ adults in the state. They’re followed by Denver (8) and Seattle (7).
Meanwhile, Seattle and San Francisco topped the list of most active brewery permits with 352 apiece. They’re followed closely by Denver (330), Long Island and Buffalo (294 each, though Long Island is still not a city), and Detroit and Grand Rapids with 291 each. That’s a whole lot of breweries for residents to get out and appreciate over the Fourth of July weekend.
Show off your bulging American pride this 4th of July with the best patriotic craft beers in the country. Not only do these beers look great with their impressive patriotic artwork, but they’re also American made and feature delicious summer flavors to keep you cool during your (hopefully) warm 4th of July celebrations. A couple of them even benefit our soldiers. No one will doubt where your allegiance lies when you walk into the party with these brews.
Liberty Ale – Anchor Brewing
Though offered all year long, this American classic was brewed to commemorate Paul Revere’s historic ride to let patriots know the English were coming. Liberty Ale is crafted with centuries-old brewing traditions, staying true to its celebration of American history. And its mild hoppy bitterness and fruity and bready notes make it perfect for our summer celebration of freedom.
Thomas Jefferson’s Tavern Ale – Yards Brewing Co.
Strong Golden Ale
If you want a truly authentic patriotic experience this 4th of July, Thomas Jefferson’s Tavern Aleis the way to go. Yards Brewing Co. worked closely with Philadelphia’s historic City Tavern to recreate Jefferson’s own famous craft beer recipe. It doesn’t get much cooler than that. The beer features honey, rye and wheat, just like Jefferson’s original, and clocks in at 8% ABV. Drink like the founding fathers who gave us our independence this Fourth!
Brew Free! or Die IPA – 21st Amendment Brewery
India Pale Ale
Celebrate freedom in ‘Murica with a beer that’s name says it all: Brew Free or Die. From the animated Mount Rushmore artwork to the classic floral hops and citrus flavors, the folks at 21st Amendment truly made an all-American IPA with Brew Free or Die. Not only is it dangerously drinkable – It’ll also give you a nice little buzz during your patriotic celebrations at 7% ABV.
For the full article, visit Berghoffbeer.com
If you’ve ever been downtown for the Fourth of July you understand how crazy it can be to find parking and some place to watch the fireworks. Sure, waiting in traffic and finding a parking garage sounds like buckets of fun, but why do that when you can enjoy the fourth festivities from one of your favorite breweries? Penn Brewery will be open on the Fourth, utilizing the great views from their Biergarten and upper terrace to host a fireworks viewing where they will be beer and sausages! It is the perfect place to enjoy the outdoor atmosphere, catch up with friends and enjoy some delicious local brews.
If you’re hungry the Penn Brewery Restaurant will be open for their regular hours. Indoor seating will stop around 8pm or 9pm. After the inside area is closed, head to the Biergarten or upper terrace to enjoy beer, sausages and the dazzling fireworks.
See you there!
It can be a cruel, cruel summer in da Burgh’ causing thirsts to run rampant. While we all like a good hoppy IPA, something refreshingly light sounds a bit more appealing on those sweltering days. What cold refresher do you turn to? How about a Shandy!
” The word “Shandy” comes from the old British name “shandy gaff,” a drink that was first mentioned in the 1850s relating to beer mixed with ginger ale. These days a Shandy is a refreshing blond lager (usually Pils or Helles) blended (50/50ish) with lemonade or lemon-lime soda. However, some encompass ginger ale, ginger beer, apple, grapefruit or orange juice. ” – eater.com
You can make a homemade Shandy or… leave it to the pros. Sip on some of our favorites this summer!
Brewery: The Traveler Beer Company
Curious Traveler is a take on a classic European Shandy that has been brewed for generations. They started with an American craft wheat ale, which delivers a crisp, light body. Then they add fresh lemon and just a touch of lime to bring out a bright, juicy citrus aroma and flavor. Simply, the Curious Traveler is “Quite a Refresher!”
Brewery: Harpoon Brewery
When Harpoon Brewery first started thinking of a UFO summer seasonal, they knew they had their work cut out for them. They loaded up the vans for the beach and spent days “researching” every combination of fresh fruit juice and beer they could think of until they discovered a combination that made our decision easy. Sweet with a hint of tartness, UFO Big Squeeze Shandy is perfect for all of your summer adventures!
Brewery: Boston Beer Company
Tart & refreshing, this unique summer quencher is our twist on the Bavarian Radler, named for cyclists that originated this drink. Traditionally a mixture of beer and lemonade, for their take they combined the crispness of a golden Helles lager with a blend of lemons to create a fresh squeezed tangy taste perfect for the long yet fleeting days of summer.
Brewery: The Traveler Beer Company
Traveler Grapefruit Shandy is a deceptively delicious wheat beer made with real grapefruit. It delivers a bright and satisfying citrus aroma and flavor, then quickly disappears, leaving you searching for another.
For more Shandy style beers, click here.
Colorado-based brewery, New Belgium Brewing Company opened their doors and bottled their first beers in 1991 and has continued to produce delicious brews over their 25 years of business. How’d they get here? Well, we’d like to imagine them riding that red bike that is infamous with their brand. Fat Tire Amber Ale, the brewery’s flagship was first conceived during a bike ride through Belgium and finally come to life as a “home brew” in the late 1980s. A few years later, the official brewery was established.
It has grown to become the nation’s 4th largest craft brewery, distributing in 41 states and opening a second location across the country in Asheville, NC.
The rich history and accomplishments of the company and Fat Tire is something to celebrate. In honor of this milestone, New Belgium is throwing birthday celebrations across the country (don’t miss Pittsburgh’s 25 Tap Takeover at Brick’s Oven and Pour House!) and have teamed up with some of their best brewing friends to produce a mixed 12-pack collaboration of a Fat Tire limited edition brews. The Riff-Pack will feature two New Belgium original Fat Tire Amber Ales plus two of each interpretation beers.
Avery Brewing – Fat Wild Ale
Avery will focus on a fruitier hop bill also with a dose of brett evoking notes of apricot and pineapple.
Allagash Brewing – Fat Funk Ale
Allagash will produce a version of Fat Tire using Belgian yeast sourced from the Poperinge region and a touch of the Allagash house Brettanomyces—expect notes of stone fruit, sweet tart and peppercorn.
Firestone Walker Brewing – Fat Hoppy Ale
Firestone Walker is creating a west coast interpretation of Fat Tire with an assertive hop profile and a light lager yeast.
Hopworks Urban Brewery – Fat Sour Apple Ale
Hopworks Urban Brewery (HUB) is creating a tart Fat Tire bringing in apple and lactobacillus to help highlight that beautiful green apple snap inherent to the original Fat Tire.
Rhinegist Brewery – Fat Pale Ale
Rhinegeist has transformed Fat Tire into a Belgian XPA, combining a fruity Belgian yeast strain with bready-sweet European and Colorado malts for a beer to please hopheads and wine drinkers alike.
Sound good? Find yourself a pack or head to Saturday July 9th New Belgium Tap Takeover at Tapped Brick Oven & Pour House from 3pm – 6pm.
For more information about this limited edition pack, click here.
The number of breweries across the country has grown over the years. You can go to a grocery store or beer distributor and be able to pick from beers from local Pittsburgh breweries or from breweries miles away. The options are endless. We’re excited to announce that you will now have one more option to pick from here in Pittsburgh. The Greater Pittsburgh Area will now host Portland’s 10 Barrel Brewing Company beers!
Treat yourself to something new and give 10 Barrel Brewing Company a taste.
Breckenridge Brewery has been on a roll recently, pumping out new beers and releasing seasonal favorites, but Pittsburghers and Breckenridge Beer fans alike can rejoice knowing that they can have the new Mango Mosaic Pale Ale year round available in ½’s 1/6’s and 4/6 nr’s.
The pale ale known for tropical flavors and exotic hops gives off aromas of guava and of course, mango which gives the pale ale a distinct sweetness in juxtaposition to the crisp hop character.
While you may think that this fruit beer is exclusively for summer, it is really an all-occasion beer. Enjoy one after a long day’s work, after a hike or even after day on the slopes.
Todd Ursy, President of Breckenridge Brewery explains, “We’ve used Mosaic hops for several years in other beers, and we love the floral, tropical fruit, earthy characteristics that it gives – great aroma and a sweetness unlike other hops we’ve experimented with.”
IBU: 26 | ABV: 5.5%
Summer means enjoying warmer weather outside with friends and family. But don’t let the scorching sun put a hold on your outdoor adventures. Boulder Beer put a twist on one of your childhood favorites. Adding an adult spin on a classic summer treat, cool down with these Pulp Fusion Popsicle’s all summer long!
- 1/3 cup fresh squeezed lemon juice (about 4 large lemons)
- 1/4 cup sugar
- 1 cup Pulp Fusion Blood Orange IPA
Click here for full recipe directions. (Courtesy of the Beeroness.)
New Belgium Brewing Company opened their doors in 1991 by Jeff Lebesch and Kim Jordan with their infamous beer Fat Tire. Fat Tire, beloved amber ale that perfectly balances biscuit-like malt flavors with hoppy freshness has cruised through its 25 years full of imagination, inspiration and plenty of good times. In honor of the milestone, Tapped Brick Oven & Pour House are hosting a big birthday party
On Saturday, July 9th clear your schedules from 3pm – 6pm to celebrate with 25 New Belgium beers on tap. This isn’t any ole beer birthday takeover; it is a beer takeover celebration. Try some of New Belgium’s old favorites, Fat Tire birthday collaboration beer AND rare beers that you can typically on find at the Colorado Brewing Facility.
Whether you’re planning an Independence Day bash or hosting a laid-back rooftop gathering with friends, we know the main ingredient to make your 4th of July menu shine is beer, of course!
We’ve gathered some of our favorite recipes to help you plan the ultimate beer-filled spread in celebration of stars and stripes.
Beer Can Chicken
Yeah, you read that right. In this classic recipe, you get to shove a can of your favorite brew up the wrong side of a well-seasoned chicken. The steam from the brew flavors the meat and keeps it moist. The can props the chicken up, so it roasts evenly—no scorching, no flipping, no stressing. And you get to drink some beer. We’re believers.
Beer: Bud Light
- 1 (4-pound) whole chicken
- 2 tablespoons vegetable oil
- 2 tablespoons salt
- 1 teaspoon black pepper
- 3 tablespoons of your favorite dry spice rub
- 1 can beer
Remove neck and giblets from chicken and discard. Rinse chicken inside and out, and pat dry with paper towels. Rub chicken lightly with oil then rub inside and out with salt, pepper and dry rub. Set aside.
Open beer can and take several gulps (make them big gulps so that the can is half full). Place beer can on a solid surface. Grabbing a chicken leg in each hand, plunk the bird cavity over the beer can. Transfer the bird-on-a-can to your grill and place in the center of the grate, balancing the bird on its 2 legs and the can like a tripod.
Cook the chicken over medium-high, indirect heat (i.e. no coals or burners on directly under the bird), with the grill cover on, for approximately 1 1/4 hours or until the internal temperature registers 165 degrees F in the breast area and 180 degrees F in the thigh, or until the thigh juice runs clear when stabbed with a sharp knife. Remove from grill and let rest for 10 minutes before carving.
Recipe courtesy of Bob Blumer; read more at Food Network.
Sriracha Beer Butter Grilled Corn
Keep your sides simple this summer, some grilled produce, seasonal ingredients, real butter and great beer.
Beer: Gaffel Kölsch
- ½ cup unsalted butter, chopped into cubes
- 3 tbs IPA beer
- 1 tsp sriracha
- ½ tsp garlic powder
- ¼ tsp kosher salt
- 6 ears fresh corn, shucked
- 2 tbs olive oil
- salt and pepper
- ¼ cup chopped cilantro
In a stand mixer fitted with a paddle attachment beat the butter until light and fluffy.
Add the beer, sriracha, garlic and salt. Beat until well combined.
Add the butter to a piece of plastic wrap, roll tightly into a log. Refrigerate until set, about 1 hour.
Preheat the grill.
Brush the corn with olive oil, sprinkle with salt and pepper.
Grill on all sides until lightly charred and tender, 8-10 minutes.
Add the corn to pieces of aluminum foil, top with several slices of butter, sprinkle with cilantro.
Recipe courtesy of Jackie Dodd; read more at The Beeroness.
Ranch Beer Cheese Dip
No party is complete without this famous Beer Dip.
Beer: Any bottle of your favorite beer
- ½ to ¾ cup beer
- 2 cups shredded cheddar cheese
- 1 packet (1 ounce) Hidden Valley® Original Ranch® Dips Mix
- 2 packages (8 ounces each) cream cheese softened
Combine Cheddar cheese, cream cheese and Hidden Valley® Original Ranch® Dips Mix in a medium bowl. Gradually stir in beer until mixture reaches desired consistency. Garnish with green onion and additional Cheddar cheese. Serve with pretzels or vegetable pieces.
Recipe courtesy of Hidden Valley; read more at Hidden Valley.
The beer takes a standard vinaigrette and adds a certain indefinable complexity. Food & Wine suggests serving this dressing with a salad of chicory, radicchio, arugula, pecans and orange segments.
Beer: Point Whole Hog Six Hop IPA
- 3 ounces Indian Pale Ale
- 1 tablespoon minced shallot
- 1 teaspoon finely grated orange zest
- 1 tablespoon honey
- 1 teaspoon Dijon mustard
- 4 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil
- Kosher salt and freshly ground pepper
In a small bowl, whisk the beer with the shallot, orange zest, honey and mustard. Gradually add the oil in a thin stream, whisking constantly. Season the vinaigrette with salt and pepper and serve.
Contributed by Sean Paxton; read more at Food & Wine.
Hard Cider Sangria
Crisp, tart hard cider is delicious on its own—but it’s also fantastic in cocktails. Instead of wine, this juicy sangria is made with hard cider spiked with lemon juice and apple brandy.
Beer: Michelob Ultra Light Cider
- 1 cup quartered and thinly sliced unpeeled green, yellow and red apples
- 1 navel orange—quartered and thinly sliced crosswise
- 1 cup apple juice, chilled
- 2 tablespoons fresh lemon juice
- 1/4 cup apple brandy
- One 22-ounce bottle hard apple cider, chilled
In a pitcher, combine the apples with the orange, apple juice, lemon juice and brandy. Just before serving, add the hard cider. Serve in tall glasses over ice.
Contributed By Grace Parisi; read more at Food & Wine.
Looking for a summer beer to carry you through September? Try Abita Brewery Company’s traditional pilsner, Seersucker Summer Pils. It has a full-bodied malt flavor, hop bitterness and a light golden color. Best of all, this Pils pairs well with many of your summer favorites including grilled chicken, salmon or garden salads. Even pair it with cheeses like mild white Vermont cheddar, Havarti or Monterey Jack. Fire up your grills and pick up a few six packs and you’ve got yourself a cook out!
Available in 6-pack bottle or 6-pack cans and enjoy the taste of summer.
ABV: 4.8% | IBU: 35
This piece originally appeared on Thrillist.
Drinking beer because it might be healthy is like taking a flight because you might see some killer clouds. Suffice it to say, both the health benefits and the clouds are not why you do either of those things. You probably drink beer because it’s delicious and makes you feel like an honest-to-goodness champion, but there are some potential positive health effects you might want to be aware of. Here’s a bunch of benefits to drinking your favorite alcoholic beverage, according to science.
It fights weight gain and high cholesterol
Good news: OregonLive reports that a study conducted at Oregon State showed that mice given a high-fat diet and xanthohumol (“a natural flavor found in hops and beer”) had their insulin and cholesterol levels cut significantly. Bad news: you’d have to drink 3,500 pints a day to take in that level of xanthohumol. Interesting news: that’s only ~3,496 more beers than you drink in a given day.
It’ll help you after you have a heart attack
Considering heart disease is the leading cause of death in America, odds are you might have a heart attack in your lifetime. Yeah, it sucks. On the upside, just because you have one doesn’t mean you have to stop drinking beer. To the contrary — Harvard researchers found that men who drank two drinks a day (aka a bottle/can of beer) were “42% less likely to die from heart disease.”
It could help prevent Alzheimer’s
A university in Madrid found that drinking two beers a day “limited the ability of aluminum to damage the brain,” which is good, because aluminum is thought to be a factor in causing Alzheimer’s. Does that mean if you drink four beers, you might double the effects of beer against aluminum? There’s only one way to find out! (Also, probably not.)
It improves your sleep
This study by Spanish researchers has a big asterisk next to it because the study was about the effects of non-alcoholic beer. But it’s still beer, and it’s still good for you! The study, which featured 17 nurses as participants, found that the volunteers fell asleep 12 minutes faster and tossed and turned less when they drank an NA beer before bed. O’Doul’s should rebrand as the Perfect Bedtime Beer.
It helps bones stay healthy and strong
Dr. Kaplan of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas says that beer “may help increase bone density,” which is helpful for people who don’t want their bones to fracture. The Wall Street Journal also quoted the good doctor as citing a separate study where male beer drinkers had a “lower risk of coronary-artery disease” than guys who drank wine or spirits. I want this guy to be my primary care physician.
It’s a great hydration source after a workout
Spanish researchers say that beer hydrates “slightly better” than water, which is great news for amateur athletes who can’t wait until they go to the bar after the game to drink. One of the researchers claimed that the carbs in beer “replace lost calories,” proving that if you work out to lose weight, perhaps subbing beer for water isn’t the best idea.
It could help prevent cancer
Might as well enjoy another fresh-hop IPA, because researchers at the University of Idaho are working to extract compounds from hops that they think might fight cancer and other inflammatory diseases. It could also be a ploy for those researchers to buy hops for the lab and then secretly use them to homebrew, but that’s a wild guess.
It gives you a sick dopamine rush
You probably already know this because you have a subscription to Neuropsychopharmacology, but the journal published the work of an Indiana U professor who showed that a few minutes after 49 adult men tasted beer, their brains released that sweet, sweet dopamine rush you might recognize from that one time you had sex. Finally, beer and sex are now inextricably linked!
It reduces the risk of kidney stones
If you drink soda, pay attention. The Washington Post reported on a study from the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (yes, THAT Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology!) that found that people who drank sugary beverages developed kidney stones more than ones who didn’t. The good news is that the people in the study who drank beer once a day had a 41% lowered risk of developing kidney stones.
Cheers to our military friends! From May 16th to July 5th, Samuel Adams is partnering with local bars and restaurants to salute all those who protect our freedom and independence every day! Join Samuel Adams and #PourOneForward to honor active and retired military heroes and help raise money for American Dream U!
At participating locations, you can purchase two Samuel Adams Boston Lagers and leave one behind to be enjoyed by an active duty soldier or vet. You simply tell your server you’d like to “Pour One Forward” and he or she will give you a paper pint glass to write a note of thanks or special shout out to your favorite soldier or our military at large. Your server will hang it on the wall and when a soldier or vet comes in to that bar or restaurant, they can pull it down and exchange it for a cold pint of Boston Lager.
Wait… there’s more!
If you post a picture of your thank you note and tag it #PourOneForward, Sam Adams will donate $1 to the nonprofit American Dream U to help soldiers find jobs they are really passionate about or start their own business as they transition from active duty to civilian life.
Every day, countless men and women put their early career aspirations aside to defend the values that define our country. Salute and thank them in the best of ways! Click here to find participating restaurants and bars and get involved!
Expert Beer and Food Pairings for Summer From The Food Network Kitchen
Is there a better match than hot days and cold beers? Here, we’ve rounded up our favorite summer foods along with what beer best suits the moment.
Eating a fish taco at the beach: Mexican lager in a tallboy, doctored up with a squeeze of lime and a drop of hot sauce. Try Corona and Rachael Ray’s grilled fish tacos.
Sitting on the porch with a hot dog on a hot day: Light, crisp German kolsch — super-refreshing, easy-to-drink and low-alcohol. Try Beck’s Pilsner or Gaffel Kölsch with any of these 35 top hot dog recipes.
Hamburgers from the grill in your best friend’s backyard: Full-bodied lager if it’s a hot day, brown ale if it’sa cool night. Try Rolling Rock, Bud Light or Michelob with any of these 50 favorite burger recipes.
Cherry pie from a roadside stand: Stout. The darker the better. Trust us on this one. Try Yards Love Stout with Sandra Lee’s homemade cherry pie.
Cheese and crackers at a movie in the park: Something indulgent and Belgian, like a fruity saison or a lush blonde ale. Try Hoegaarden or Stella with Bobby Flay’s blue cheese crostini.
Grilled sausage mid-afternoon at a beer garden: Something malty and Germanic, served in a mug large enough to make your wrist hurt. Try Löwenbräu or Duquesne Pilsener with Bobby Flay’s grilled sweet and hot sausages.
Believe it or not, beer can be beneficial for more than taking a load off after a long day or celebrating a special occasion with friends—it can help around the house as well. Whether you have an extra bottle that you or are looking for ways to make use what you already have to make your dollar go further in a convenient way, beer is here to help.
1. Use it as a tenderizer for your cook out.
Cooking with beer is often done to add flavor, but when cooking a piece of steak it can do a lot more. Everyone likes a nice, juicy steak—but how do you get it? Beer acts as a natural marinade/tenderizer, helping to reduce the level of potential toxins found form grilling with coal, oil and gasoline. So basically, beer will make it delicious and safer to eat!
2. Keep your lawn looking perfect.
Share some love with your lawn with a long-kept secret from a golf course groundskeeper. This recipe for success can help stimulate growth of plants as well as killing harmful fungi. Enough talkin, check out the recipe.
- You will need:
- One full can of regular pop (any kind-no diet soda)
- One full can of beer (no light beer) 12oz
- 1/2 Cup of Liquid dishwashing soap (do NOT use anti-bacterial dishwashing liquid)
- 1/2 Cup of household ammonia
- 1/2 Cup of mouthwash (any brand)
3. Sooth your tired feet.
Pamper yourself or your partner with this special treat. After a long summer day of working on your feet, your might want nothing but a beer to wash the day away. Why not sooth your feet AND drink a few. Pour two beers into a washbasin and soak your feet. Ice-cold brews with high carbonation are ideal as they will be the most soothing for your feet.
4. Turn a bad situation into a way to polish your wooden table.
We’ve all been there—someone has spilled a flat beer on your table. You let it sit and it might leave a ring or get sticky—don’t worry, it doesn’t have to! Flat beer works well to create a nice shine on wood surfaces, just softly rub it onto the wood with a soft cloth and let the magic happen.
5. Have an at home spa experience with homemade beer beauty products.
Beer works great for facial masks and helps to liven up dull hair. To make the facemask just mix together: 1 tablespoon of beer, tablespoon of plain yogurt, 1 teaspoon of olive oil, 1 egg white and 1 teaspoon of almond extract. Leave your carbonated concoction on for 15 as it helps to help maintain balanced pH levels.
Is your hair looking dull and lacking luster? Dip your hair in flat beer and rinse the remaining with the leftovers and work it into your scalp. Leave it in for 1 minute and then rinse with water. In the end your hair will be revitalized and looking fabulous.
6. Loosen up those pesky rusty bolts.
Save yourself the stress and sweat of trying to twist and turn with no success, pour a little beer on rusty screws or bolts and they should start to loosen them up—the carbonation of beers help to get the magic working.